Climate change, habitat degradation, overexploitation and biological invasions are threatening global biodiversity and ecosystem functioning through the loss of key species and altered energy flows. This can severely impact human’s health, wellbeing, and economic activities, and is leading to a growing sense that mankind has surpassed the thresholds of sustained life on Earth. This has been stressed by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, which showed that the current efforts to halt the biodiversity crisis are falling far short of international needs. In the context of global climate change, the Paris Agreement [UN Framework Convention on Climate Change] was outlined to provide a roadmap to limit global warming and accomplish the Sustainable Development Goals [UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development]. This was supported by policy-relevant research quantifying biodiversity impacts under contrasting scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change].
Biodiversity impact assessments still held low confidence and high uncertainty owing to shortage of predictive infrastructures providing accurate models and forecasts that can effectively guide conservation strategies and prioritize actions to safeguard threatened species and ecosystems. Additionally, current conservation efforts still respond to short-term threats, raising the need to start focusing on evidence-based, long-term proactive actions preventing biodiversity crises in the first place.